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Учебно-методическое обеспечение системного развития
разговорной речи на уроках иностранного языка

Григорьева Людмила Васильевна,
преподаватель английского языка
СПб ГБ ПОУ СПб ГБ ПОУ
«ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА
В современном мире иностранный язык является средством общения, познания, получения и накопления информации, что предопределяет необходимость владения всеми видами речевой деятельности: говорением и пониманием речи на слух на иностранном языке, чтением и письмом.
Как известно, практической целью обучения иностранному языку является овладение обучающимися коммуникативной компетенцией. При организации обучения иноязычной речевой деятельности, как правило, используется следующая схема последовательности функционирования речевых механизмов: рецепция – продукция. 
Под «рецепцией» понимается восприятие и осознание поступающей извне информации в виде аудио- или графического текста. Текст является моделью иноязычного речевого произведения и, следовательно, служит образцом использования конкретного языкового и речевого материала. «Продукция» предполагает построение самостоятельного речевого произведения, дискурса, с использованием языковых и речевых средств восприятия текста.
Совершенно очевидно, что в процессе формирования навыков и умений говорения восприятие текста не сможет автоматически способствовать самостоятельному построению дискурса. Необходимо промежуточное звено, в рамках которого будет осуществляться тренировка языковых, речевых и содержательных средств текста для их дальнейшего использования в дискурсе.
Данная работа предполагает своей задачей рассмотреть:
  • теоретические основы обучения иноязычной коммуникации на уроках иностранного языка;
  • методическое обеспечение процесса развития навыков разговорной речи на уроках иностранного языка.
  •  
ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИНОЯЗЫЧНОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ НА УРОКАХ ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА
Окончательная конфигурация процесса обучения иноязычной коммуникации должна выглядеть следующим образом: рецепция (восприятие текста) – репродукция (пересказ текста) – продукция (посторенние дискурса).      
Помимо пересказа существуют разнообразные виды трансформации исходного текста, такие как:
  • краткое содержание воспринятого текста (summary);
  • рассказ текста (story-telling);
  • аннотация к тексту (blurb/synopsis/gist);
  • реферирование (precis-writing);
  • переложение / интерпретация (rendering);
  • критическая статья / рецензия (critique / crirtical essay).
В отличие от пересказа, который является репродуктивным, все вышеперечисленные виды относятся к репродуктивно-продуктивной и продуктивной речи.
Пересказ – один из наиболее часто используемых приемов в обучении иностранному языку, который выполняет следующие функции:
  • развитие и совершенствование языковых (фонетических, лексических, грамматических) навыков речи посредством выхода в репродуктивную речь;
  • развитие и совершенствование навыков использования эквивалентных замен;
  • формирование навыков построения дискурса, составляющих умения монологической речи, а именно навыков осмысленной композиционной организации речевого произведения, выстраивания его хронологии и причинно-следственных связей;
  • контроль степени сформированности всех вышеперечисленных навыков и умений.
А главное, с помощью пересказа можно научиться строить свою речь, ориентируясь на исходный текст, так как он заведомо корректен и нормативен.
Для контроля понимания содержания текста, подлежащего пересказу, можно использовать:
  • факутальные или проблемные вопросы (factual and inference questions);
  • тесты на множественный выбор (multiple-choice test);
  • тесты на заполнение пропусков (cloze-test);
  • тесты на выстраивание правильной последовательности (reordering/rearrangement test);
  • тесты на соответствие (matching);
  • тесты на правильные/неправильные утверждения (true / false / statements).
На уроках целесообразно использовать следующие алгоритмы обучения пересказу:
  1. пересказ по вопросам;
  2. пересказ по предложенным лексико-смысловым опорам;
  3. пересказ по плану;
  4. пересказ-опровержение;
  5. пересказ-объяснение;
  6. пересказ-предыстория;
  7. пересказ-восстановление хронологии событий;
  8. обратный пересказ.
Если пересказ планируется в качестве домашнего задания, обучающиеся самостоятельно работают в соответствии со знакомыми алгоритмами:
  1. прочитать текст, а потом проговорить его содержание без графической опоры;
  2. составить план текст, или вопросы в  хронологической последовательности;
  3. выписать лексико-смысловые опоры текста в виде ключевых слов или словосочетаний.
Данные приемы организации пересказа способствуют формированию навыков и умений репродуктивной и продуктивной монологической речи. Целью обучения монологической речи является формирование речевых монологических умений:
  • пересказать текст, подготовить сообщение на заданную тему; составить рассказ;
  • логически последовательно раскрыть заданную тему;    
  • обосновать правильность своих суждений, включая в свою речь элементы рассуждения, аргументации,    
Все названные умения вырабатываются в процессе выполнения подготовительных и речевых упражнений. При определении видов упражнений необходимо учитывать следующие критерии:
  • вид монолога (сообщение, повествование, описание, рассуждение);
  • связность и логичность изложения мыслей и структурно-композиционная завершенность высказывания;
  • объем высказывания – степень раскрытия темы и количество предложений;
  • лексико-грамматическая (в том числе и синтаксическая) правильность.
Методически важным являются:
  1. характер опор, с помощью которых выполняются упражнения при обучении монологической речи;
  2. цель высказывания.
Опорами могут быть: наглядность, текст, ситуация, тема, проблема.
Для систематизации работы по формированию монологического высказывания необходим методически правильно подобранный комплекс упражнений, использование и сочетание традиционных и нетрадиционных форм организации учебной деятельности, непрерывность и последовательность в изложении материала. Важно, чтобы обучающиеся осознали реальную возможность пользоваться языком как средством общения, умели высказываться целостно, логично, связно, продуктивно, самостоятельно, экспромтом, в нормальном темпе.  
Одним из способов формирования коммуникативной компетенции на уроках иностранного языка является развитие навыков диалогической речи. В плане активизации навыков говорения в диалогической форме речи могут быть использованы следующие типы диалогов:
  • диалог-расспрос;
  • диалог-побуждение к действию;
  • диалог-обмен мнениями.
В процессе обучения диалогической речи  обучающиеся учатся критически мыслить, решать сложные проблемы на основе анализа обстоятельств и соответствующей информации, взвешивать альтернативные мнения, принимать продуманные решения, участвовать в дискуссиях, общаться с другими людьми. Для этого на уроках организуются индивидуальная, парная, групповая работа, применяются исследовательские проекты, ролевые игры, проводится работа с документами и различными источниками информации, используются творческие работы.
При составлении диалогов обучающиеся должны уметь:
  1. задавать вопросы разных типов;
  2. логично, последовательно отвечать на поставленные вопросы;
  3. использовать различные реплики реагирования в процессе общения;
  4. употреблять различные вводные структуры и клише;
  5. пользоваться различными способами реализации речевых функций, таких как выражение согласия или несогласия, сомнения, удовлетворения, просьбы, вежливого отказа и т.д.
Таким образом, дилогическая речь на уроках иностранного языка способствует:
  • развитию речи и мышления;
  • раскрытию интеллектуальных способностей;
  • усвоению большого количества идей и способов решения проблем;
  • дает возможность самореализоваться.
В качестве вывода нужно отметить, что целью обучения говорению на уроках иностранного языка является формирование таких речевых навыков и умений, которые позволили бы обучающемуся использовать их как вне учебной речевой практике на уровне общепринятого речевого общения, так  и в дальнейшей профессиональной деятельности.
Реализация этой цели связана с формированием у обучающихся следующих коммуникативных умений:
  • понимать и порождать иноязычные высказывания в соответствии с конкретной ситуацией общения, речевой задачей и коммуникативным намерением;
  • осуществлять свое речевое поведение, принимая во внимание правила общения и национально-культурные особенности стран изучаемого языка;
  • пользоваться рациональными приемами овладения иностранным языком, самостоятельно совершенствоваться в нем. 
Способность к общению на иностранном языке предполагает также формирование у обучающихся определенных качеств, делающих процесс овладения языком как средством межкультурной коммуникации наиболее эффективным:
  • интереса и положительного отношения к изучаемому языку, к культуре народа, говорящем на этом языке;
  • понимания себя как личности, принадлежащей к определенному языковому сообществу, а также общечеловеческое познание;
  • понимания важности изучения иностранного языка;
  • потребности в самообразовании.
 
Для достижения цели обучения говорению и решения поставленных задач, на уроках используется дополнительная учебная литература и разноуровневые практические задания, составленные преподавателем, позволяющие осуществлять дифференцированный подход в обучении иноязычной коммуникации на уроках иностранного языка.
 
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ПРОЦЕССА РАЗВИТИЯ НАВЫКОВ РАЗГОВОРНОЙ РЕЧИ НА УРОКАХ ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА
Комплекс упражнений 1
1 курс.   Раздел 4 «Молодое поколение». Тема «Спорт и здоровый образ жизни».
Sport: to Do or not to Do?
The arguments below look at the general case of doing or not doing sport.
For Against
Sport is great way to stay fit and healthy. This is very important today as few people have jobs with physical labour and most of us travel everywhere by car. (A) ………. It is important to keep fit, however, sport is not the only way to do this. Eating well is a big part of healthy life, and many people prefer to exercise in other ways, for example jogging, working out in a jym, dancing, or even gardening. On the other hand, sport can actually be dangerous. Millions of people are hurt playing sport each year, and some of them very seriously. (G) ……….   
Sport teaches us big lessons for life. Most sports involve teamwork and teach us how to get along with others, how to work together to achieve a common goal, how to trust others and be responsible. (B) ……….
True, some sports do not suit some people, but there are so many possible choices that everyone can find a sport to enjoy. 
Sport does teach children lessons, but not always good ones. Many children are not naturally talented  and only come across failure and embarrassment on the sports field.            (H) ……….
Spot is competitive because life is competitive. There is nothing wrong with being ambitious and working hard to achieve the aims you set yourself. (C) ……….
But sport teaches us to compete fairly, within the rules. It balances competitiveness with teamwork and the need to respect the other side.
Sport makes people too competitive and may show the worst sides of human nature. Sport may make people go too far to get an unfair advantage. Even amateur sports have cheats, a lack of respect for referees and drugs problems. These problems are worse in professional sport where there is need to make money and athletes want to win by all means. (I) ……….
Sport encourages a sense of belonging and identity, bringing people together in our society. This is true about playing sport and also watching sport and following a team.     
(D) ……….
At national level, it can bring unity and pride to a whole country and help overcome differences.             
Sport also encourages an us-against-them attitude. We see aggression towards other teams. One example is football violence (hooliganism) in England, Holland and Italy. (J)………
Sport gives us role models to look up to and try to copy. This is very important for young people from poor backgrounds who may have little hope.
(E) ……….
Sports stars may be bad role models for young people to follow. Many behave badly and so set a bad example to children. But even those who behave well are not good examples to follow.
(K) ………
Shouldn’t they be celebrated for their work as scientists, doctors, and teachers, or in business?
Sport has lots of social benefits. Sports programmes can give people a positive purpose and something to do. In schools after periods of physical activity children go back to their desks with better focus on their work.
(F) ……….
Sport today more about money rather than taking part in competitions, Success in professional teams often depends on a rich owner who can buy talented players. Players have no loyalty to the club which trained them from childhood, but go wherever the money is.
(L) ……….
 
Task 1. These extracts have been removed from the text. Decide in which gap (see letters) each one should go.

 
  1. Many cities have used a new sports stadium to attract people back to rundown areas. Other businesses have followed the sports fans. These investments later bring more money to the city’s budget.
  2. They can see how sports stars find ways out of bad situations through hard work and their own abilities. Besides, athletes may be the only positive role models for some children who live in poor areas.
  3. When supporting your team, you can forget about your everyday worries and enjoy sharing a group experience. It also brings people from different classes and backgrounds together – after all, sport is a universal language.
  4. All sports teach us about dealing with success and failure. They also help people learn about coping with pressure and the need to continue in order to improve yourself.
  5. As z result many people are overweight and suffer poor health. Sport may not be the only way to keep fit, but the competition and teamwork in sport give people a lot of motivation to keep going.
  6. Nor is there wrong if you want to do better than someone else. By playing sport children learn about competition and adults have a good outlet for aggression.
  7. It happens at boxing matches and even in college sports in America. Hooliganism also happens between countries – every time England plays Germany it renews memories of the Second World War.
  8. Professional athletes spend much of their time getting over injuries. Being hurt by another player is common in contact sports, such as boxing, football, rugby or hockey. Other injuries often happen because players train too much before the competition.
  9. Some athletes have changed nationality for money. There is a lot of advertising on the pitch and the player’s shirts. Fans are willing to overpay for any item with the team logo on it. Even the Olympics have become one great market. 
  10. This hurts their confidence and may put them off any sport of exercise for life. Plenty of other activities can teach teamwork and other life skills, for example hiking and camping, playing in a band, or raising money for charity.
  11.  This is because top athletes don’t need a good education. Children who hero-worship them could easily think that sport is more important than working hard in school. 
  12. Too much competition can also be bad for you – doctors find that sports fans often stress and depression as a result of following their team.
 
Task 2. Fill in the gaps with prepositions from the text.
  1. Success in sport depends not only ….. the athlete but the coach, too.
  2. The accident put Jack ….. boxing for the rest of his life.
  3. You should work ….. regularly if you want to keep fit.
  4. Sport has helped me deal ….. pressure at work.
  5. Leo Messi is the footballer many teens look ….. .
  6. Julia found strength to cope ….. her defeat at the Olympics.
  7. Members of the team get ….. perfectly.   
  8. I have nothing but respect ….. the winning team.
  9. ….. the one hand Ben showed a better result, but ….. the other, he came fourth.
  10. In sport you should learn to come ….. failure as well as victory.
Task 3. Match the words/word combinations and their definitions.
 
1. to be overweight a) to act in a dishonest way in order to gain an advantage
2. contact sports b) wanting to win or to be more successful than other people
3. to hero-worship c) to be too fat and heavy
4. to cheat d) to admire sb very much because you think they are extremely beautiful, intelligent, etc.
5. competition e) sports in which players have physical contact with each other
 
Task 4. Discuss the following questions. Use the vocabulary of the article.
  1. What is your personal attitude to sport?
  2. What are the emotional benefits of sport?
  3. How important is sport for children? Should all children go in for sport?
  4. Give examples of athletes who are good and bad role models for children and teens. What make them such role models?
  5. What is your opinion about professional sport? What are its advantages and disadvantages?
  6. If you could do a sport professionally what sport you choose, and why?
  7. Do you watch sport competitions and support your national team? Why/why not?
  8. Is football violence a big problem in your country? How can we stop football violence?
  9. Some athletes have very big salaries. Dl you think it’s alright? Or should they be paid less?
  10. Give a small talk or make a presentation about the athlete you look up.
 
Комплекс упражнений 2
1 курс.   Раздел 4 «Молодое поколение». Тема «Собственное мнение».
  1. Read the dialogue.
Kate and Kevin are students. They are in an international school now.
Kate: Hello, Kevin!
Kevin: Hello, Kate!
Kate: I’ve got two tickets to tonight’s theatre performance but I can’t go. You can get them if you want.
Kevin: I’d love to see the performance but I’m really busy tonight. Thanks, anyway. I’ve heard cultural life is intense in Russia. What places would you recommend seeing there?
Kate: The choice is wide. There are lots of theatres and cinemas. There are exhibitions, museums and galleries. I can recommend the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. The theatre was built in the 19th century and it looks beautiful. The Bolshoi ballet dancers are famous all over the world.
Kevin: I’ll definitely go there if I go to Moscow. I like going out but when I feel tired, I stay at home and watch TV. Do you watch TV a lot?
Kate: No, not really. I don’t watch TV much – I just don’t have time for that.
Kevin: And what TV programmes do you like when you do have time?         
Kate: I like feature films and educational programmes about nature, traveling, science and history. Sometimes I watch the Discovery Channel. They show interesting documentaries about everything – wildlife, culture and people’s inventions.
Kevin: Look, I’ve got some films at home. How about watching a comedy this Saturday?
Kate: Good idea. Saturday afternoon then.
Kevin: OK.
Kate: See you in Saturday.
Kevin: See you.

 
  1. Answer some questions.
1) Can Kate and Kevin go to the theatre tonight?
2) What does Kate recommend seeing in Moscow?
3) What TV programmes does Kate like to watch?

 
  1. Make up a dialogue.        
Imagine that your foreign friend is visiting you in your home place (Saint-Petersburg).
Student 1: Suggest your friend visiting a museum / a theatre / a cinema.
Student 2: Say you are unwilling to go and give reasons why (you prefer to stay at home and
watch  TV).
Комплекс упражнений 3
1 курс.   Раздел 4 «Молодое поколение».
Тема «Музыкальная культура англо-говорящих стран».
 
Simply Mick Hucknall
  1. Прочитайте текст.
  2. Ответьте на вопросы.
  3. Напишите план.
  4. Подготовьте пересказ текста по плану.
     Mick Hucknall and his group Simply Red have been extremely successful during the last 6 months. In the early days, their first album, called Picture Book, was still in the Top Ten eighteen months after it came out. The second album went straight to the top, too, and some of the singles have become smash hits all over the world. Their latest album, called Stars, has had similar success.
     Despite all of this, however, people are still very critical of lead singer, Mick Hucknall. Newspapers say that he is rude and difficult. His parents separated when he was little and he used to live with his father. He started working when he was ten, delivering milk before schools and papers after it. Like many other pop stars (David Bowie, Bryan Ferry, John Lennon) he left school at sixteen and went to art college. His hero used to be John Lennon. Now his favourite kinds of music are jazz and reggae. He can’t drive a car and uses the tube or a bike. His hobbies are cooking and cycling. He says he won’t get married until he is sixty.
     He now lives in Manchester, where he used to live when he was a little boy. He hates London. He says, “It’s better to leave England altogether than live in London.” He is a rich man. He likes Indonesian, Indian and Chinese food. He describes himself as a working-class person. “Even if I earn six million pounds, I am still a working class person.”
  1. Who is Mick Hucknall?
  2. Which albums of Simply Red are mentioned in the text?
  3. Their first album Picture Book was in the Top Ten, wasn’t it?
  4. What can you say about two other albums?
  5. What do newspapers say about Mick Hucknall?
  6. When did he start working?
  7. What are his favourite kinds of music?
  8. Where does he live now and why?
 
World-famous star Cher
  1. Прочитайте текст, поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.
  2. Ответьте на вопросы.
  3. Обсудите в группе ваше отношение к пластической хирургии.
Cher (1) _____ (BORN) on 20 May 1946 in El Centro, California, US. She (2) _____ (GIVE) the name of Cherilyn Sarkarsian. She (3) _____ (MAKE) famous by the song ‘I’ve got you, babe’, which she and her husband (4) _____ (WRITE) especially for them. In 1987 she (5) _____ (GIVE) an Oscar for her acting role in the film Moonstruck. Now rich and successful, Cher has the most exotic and expensive clothes (6) _____ (MAKE) for her. She looks very different from the teenager who sang ‘I’ve got you, babe’. Her appearance (7) _____ (TRANSFORM) by plastic surgery: she (8) _____ (NOSE/STRAIGHTEN); she (9) _____(HAIR/STYLE) completely differently. She has even had the shape of her cheekbones changed.
  1. When was Cher born?
  2. Where was she born?
  3. What song was she made famous by?
  4. When was she given an Oscar?
  5. Is she rich or poor now?
  6. How was her appearance transformed by plastic surgery?
 
Derek Caine
  1. Прочитайте диалог по ролям.
  2. Подготовьте рассказ о гитаристе. Обратите внимание на употребление личных местоимений, видовременной формы глагола, косвенной речи.
Woman: Well, it’s great to be here, interviewing the sensational rock guitarist, Derek Caine!
Derek: Hi. There!
Woman: Great! Well, Derek, you’ve been interested in music for a long time. When did it all begin? How old were you?
Derek: Well, look, I’ve got this photo album here. That’s me. I started playing the piano when I was five.
Woman: Only five years old? And a pianist already! So when did you get your first guitar?
Derek: When I was eight. I got a guitar for my eighth birthday, it was great. And here it is – I still play it.
Woman: And did you play in a group when you were eight?
Derek: No, that came two years later, when I was ten. Our name was The Sharks. Look, you can see us in the photo.
Woman: And then you were in a band called Red Alert. Is this a photo of them here?
Derek: Yes, we were really wild and punky.
Woman: How old were you then, in Red Alert? You look about seventeen.
Derek: Oh, no, no. I was only fifteen then. Fifteen years old! This is what we sounded like.
Woman: And then your big success with Utopia, and your mega hit Run for Cover.
Derek: That’s right. That was about four years ago.
Woman: And how old were you then?
Derek: Oh, eighteen. Yes, Utopia’s first hit was really big.
Woman: Let’s recall those days four years ago with a little bit of Derek Caine’s first enormous hit, Run for Cover.
 
Комплекс упражнений 4
1 курс.   Раздел 4 «Молодое поколение».
Тема «Музыкальные стили».
1. Are you for or against classical music? Study the following arguments and develop the ideas.
FOR
  1. Classical music gives the listeners a keen sensual delight and pleasure.
  2. Classical music has a deep intellectual appeal.
  3. Classical music has a strong ethical effect: it ennobles the listener, makes him better and more humane.
  4. Classical music condemns evil and supports the ideas of good.
  5. Classical music creates a special spiritual world for the listener which immensely enriches his inner life and makes him happy.
 
AGAINST
  1. Classical music is a complicated art: it’s difficult to find one’s way into it.
  2. It’s an exclusive art: most people don’t like or understand it. It’s not a popular art.
  3. The very length of most classical music pieces can send any listener to sleep.
  4. People want the kind of music, which they can dance or just talk to friends. It’s should be simple, cheerful and up-to-date.
 
2. Group discussion.
For and against pop music
FOR
  1. Young people search for new rhythms and new styles.
  2. The new rhythms are full of vigour and force: just what appeals to younger people. The tunes are happy and easily caught.
  3. The words of the songs deal with the younger people’s world; their hopes, dreams, disappointments and joys.
  4. Young people “get tremendous kicks” (as they put it) listening to this kind of music. 
  5. It’s an experimental kind of music: different groups are looking for new forms and sometimes achieve really.
  6. The very popularity of the genre speaks in its favour. It attracts great masses of young people. Why should we deprive them of the joy they obviously get from this music.
 
AGAINST
  1. Before rejecting the old rhythms and styles one should know something about them. Most pop music fans don’t know.
  2. The rhythms may be new and vigorous, but they lack variety, it’s the same monotonous beat again and again. The tunes are mostly primitive and as easily forgotten as caught.
  3. The words of some of the songs are absolutely senseless. The songs often contain …
  4. Why should one “get kicks” at all? One might get thrilled, excited, moved to tears. Does pop-music give one all these reactions?
  5. Medical research has proved beyond doubt that the volume of sounds produced by powerful music at some pop concerts does great damage both to the senses of hearing and to the nervous system. Indeed cases of mass hysteria are not at all unusual at pop concerts. Are we bring-up generation of the half-deal neurotics?
  6. In Australia taped pop music is used to frighten the sharks off the public beaches. Obviously the sharks’nerves cannot endure this kind of music.
 
Комплекс упражнений 5
2 курс. Раздел 2 «Что помогает нам наслаждаться жизнью».
Тема «Что ты знаешь о кинематографе».
 
THE CINEMA IN THE USA
     When the American goes to the cinema, he expects to see a large program: a newsreel (which is usually the first item on the program), a cartoon, a documentary and feature film (a full-length film in a cinema program). Sometimes two feature films are included in the program. Foreign films are shown with subtitles or are dubbed into English.
     The program may have one or two intervals during which refreshments of all kinds are offered. In some American cinemas there is a continuous showing of the program from opening till closing time. In that case exact show times are not fixed and the seats are not reserved. You may enter or leave the hall any time during the show and take any seat you like.
     There is a parking ground attached to big cinemas. For those who want to see a film without leaving the car there are drive-in cinemas (so-called drive-ins).
     A great number of various films are released in the USA every year. Hollywood-released films differ in genre as well as in artistic value.  Hollywood’s early films were westerns (with their fast action, uncomplicated heroes, and clear-cut conflicts between good and evil); horror films (with their mysterious and supernatural happenings, ghosts and monsters); comedies (very often not in good taste and even vulgar). Then there were romance films (which showed life as it could be lived in one’s imagination and made the viewer escape from reality into a dream word).
     Musicals (which like westerns are a wholly American production, created and developed in Hollywood) are still popular with the cinema-goers.
     There are films based on novels (so-called adaptations, that is novels adapted the screen) and films which you see the familiar characters brought to life and you feel satisfied if they look exactly as you have pictured them.
     Hollywood, that was justly accused of creating a dream world which had nothing in common with reality, has changed greatly since the time of westerns. American films of today are realistic and up-to-date. For instance, science fiction films, which took the place of horror films, offer the viewer flying saucers, extraterrestrial living beings, space battles and explosions of planets. They introduced to lovers of science fiction computers and robots going mad and attacking their creators ugly creatures born of mutation and devastating superweapons.
     Gangster films are often inspired by the gloomy front page stories. Many of the films raise urgent problems facing contemporary society and give food for thought. The screen examines the causes of criminal behaviour and suggests that bad characters are often the result of the circumstances and the environment. The idea that science threatens man is often stressed. It is suggested that human control of science may cause disasters and in the lead to the destruction of the world. 
     Most American films are made with great professional skill. Camera work, setting and acting are usually excellent. But there are also cheap second-rate films, which critics call stupid, badly written and badly directed. Such films, as they say, neither instructive nor entertaining. Well, critics know best, but one thing is certain: there is too much sex, cruelty and violence on the American screen. More than is good for the viewer in fact.
 
Задание №1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов:
  1. первый номер программы                                                                                        
  2. кинохроника
  3. мультфильм
  4. документальный фильм
  5. художественный фильм
  6. полнометражный фильм
  7. иностранный фильм
  8. субтитры
  9. дублированный фильм
  10. киносеанс, показ кинопрограммы                                                                            
  11. место в зале
  12. кино под открытым небом                                                                  
  13. выпуск фильма                                                                        
  14. жанр  
  15. художественная ценность
  16. ковбойский фильм
  17. фильм ужасов
  18. комедии
  19. романтические фильмы
  20. исторические события                                                            
  21. реалистические фильмы                                            
  22. современные фильмы
  23. профессиональное мастерство       
  24. киносъемка
  25. постановка фильма
  26. актерская игра 
  27. второсортные фильмы                                
  28. не развлекательное кино 
  29. жестокость
  30. насилие
  31. экран
  32. зритель  
     
Задание №2. Закончите фразы, выбрав нужные предложения или словосочетания.
  1. In American cinemas the program … (never includes more than one item; includes several items; sometimes includes a newsreel, a documentary, a feature film and other items; never includes cartoons or documentaries).      
  2. Foreign films … (are never shown in America; are dubbed into English; are shown with subtitles).
  3. In most American cinemas … (the seats are reserved; the seats are not reserved; there is a continuous showing of films).
  4. Hollywood-released films differ in … (artistic value; genre; cost of production; professional skill).
  5. Hollywood’s early productions were … (westerns; films based on books; films dealing with historical events; science fiction films; horror films; musicals; comedies; romance films).
  6. In westerns you can see … (mysterious and supernatural happenings; ghosts and monsters; flying saucers; space battles and explosions of planets; uncomplicated heroes; familiar characters from bestsellers).
  7.   Romance films are characterized by … (clear-cut conflicts between good and evil; fast action; unrealistic situations).
  8. In science fiction films … (life is shown as it could be lived in the imagination; you can see familiar characters brought to life; a dream world is created which has nothing in common with reality; robots go mad and attack their creators; extraterrestrial living beings visit the earth; ugly creatures frighten people; superweapons devastate whole countries).       
  9. Today Hollywood releases films which … (raise urgent problems facing contemporary society; examine causes of criminal behavior; suggest that criminals are often the result of the environment; stress the idea that human control of science may cause great disasters and in the end lead to the destruction  of the world; keep up with the latest developments in science and technology).
  10.  Among the problems raised by Hollywood releases films today are films that deal with … (rise in crime; ecology; drug addiction; ethnic conflicts; politics and morals; human control of technology; extraterrestrial civilizations).     
  11. Most American films … (are made with great professional skill; are vulgar and stupid; are characterized by excellent camera work, good setting and talented acting; are second-rate; are badly directed; are both instructive and entertaining; are neither instructive nor entertaining).
 
 Задание №3. Задайте вопросы, ответами на которые являются следующие предложения:
  1. No, it would be tiring to see a large program.
  2. As it would not be interesting to see a film without understanding.
  3. Because it is convenient to see a film without leaving the car.
  4. Yes, bestsellers are often adapted for the screen.
 
Задание №4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
  1. Are there usually items included in the program at cinema?
  2. Are foreign films shown with subtitles?
  3. Does one have to leave the car in a drive-in?
  4. Can one see only westerns, horror films and such-like thrillers on the American screen?
 
Задание №5. Исправьте утверждения, не соответствующие действительности.
  1. Bestsellers are seldom adapted foe the screen in the USA.
  2. There are parking grounds attached to big cinemas in America.
  3. All westerns and horror films are worth seeing.
 
Задание №6. Переведите предложения на английский язык.
  1. Во многих кинотеатрах Америки программа часто состоит из киножурнала, мультфильма, документального и художественного фильмов.
  2. Иностранные фильмы показывают с титрами или дублируют на  английский язык.
  3. В большинстве кинотеатров фильмы показываются без перерыва.
  4. Места в таких кинотеатрах не нумерованы.
  5. Ежегодно в США выпускается огромное количество фильмов.
  6. Выпускаемые в Голливуде фильмы различны по своему жанру и художественной ценности.
  7. Голливуд справедливо упрекали в том, что он создает на экране мир грез, который не имеет ничего общего с действительностью.
  8. Сейчас продукция Голливуда изменилась
  9. Сегодня большинство американских фильмов современны и реалистичны.
 
Задание №7. Подготовьте пересказ текста.
 
Комплекс упражнений 6
2 курс. Раздел 2 «Что помогает нам наслаждаться жизнью». Тема «Какие фильмы тебе нравятся больше всего».
 
Steven Spelberg’s films
There are some films of the American film director, Steven Spelberg. Do you know them?
  • Jaws
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
  • Jurassic Park
  • Schindler’s List
  • Empire of the Sun
 
Task 1. Read about three of Spelberg’s films.
 
1 __________is about Jim, an eleven-year-old British boy who loves planes. Jim’s family is very rich and in 1941 they are living in China. At the beginning of the war with Japan the streets of Shanghai are very crowded. One day Jim drops his toy plane. He stops and picks it up but then he can’t find his parents again because there are so many people. He goes to a prison camp and doesn’t see his mother and father again until the end of the war. Most of the film is about Jim’s life in the prison camp and how this experience changes him.
 
2 _________ is about a Great White shark which attacks and kills swimmers off the coast of New England in the USA. Three men, Quint Matt Hooper and a policeman. Brody, go out in Quint’s boat to look for the dangerous man-eating fish. After a long fight the shark attacks Quint and kills him, but at the end of the film Brody kills the shark.
 
3 _________ is about John Hammond, a rich Scotsman, who has an island near the coast of Costa Rica. On the island there’s a park full of dinosaurs. Some are friendly, some are not. Visitors come to the island, including Hammond’s two grandchildren. One day there’s a bad storm, and the dinosaurs get free. They kill and eat one of Hammod’s visitors, and attack the people who work on the island. At the end of the film, Hammond gets away in a helicopter with his grandchildren and the visitors.
 
a) Write the name of the film at the beginning of each paragraph.
 
b) Are these sentences True or False?
  1. «Empire of the Sun» is a war film.
  2. Jim is Chinese.
  3. The shark is friendly.
  4. Three men kill the shark.
  5. Some of the dinosaurs are dangerous.
  6. The dinosaurs kill Hammond.
 
c) Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions.
Example: How old / Jim?   How old is Jim?
  1. What toy / he drop?
  2. Why / the three men go out in Brody’s bout?
  3. Brody / a policeman?
  4. What / on the island?
 
 
Task 2. There are some people’s opinions about Spelberg’s films.  Listen to these people talking about Spelberg’s films.
 
Sally: Yes, I really enjoyed it. It was quite exciting – very fast. And it was also very funny. And of course I like Harrison Ford – he’s great. But the big thing about the film is that it’s also got Sean Connery in it – he’s Indiana’s father. I know he’s old but I think he’s incredibly sexy. He was the best James Bond … definitely.
 
Wayne: No, I didn’t really like it. It was too frightening – I don’t really like scary films. I know a lot of people didn’t go swimming in the see afterwards – even in England. But it was well-acted and the music was terrific.
 
Louse: Spielberg took the stiry from a book. I thought it was a very moving film – very sad – and very intelligent. But it’s quite long and it’s all in black and white. Liam Neeson played the man who saved the lives of all these people. I think he’s a fantastic actor.
 
a) Which films are they talking about?
 
b) Which is the correct answer?
 
1. Sally likes the film because
a) it’s got good music     b) it’s about James Bond     c) it’s exciting and very funny
2. Wayne doesn’t like the film because
a) it’s about swimming     b) the acting is bad     c) he doesn’t like frightening films
3. Louise thinks
a) the film is quite long but very interesting     b) Liam Neeson is very intelligent                         c) the film is long and not very interesting
 
Task 3. What’s your favourite film” who’s in it?

 
  1. Work with a partner and tell him/her about your favourite film.
  2. Write a short review of the film.
  3. Read your review to the class.
  4. Work with a group and discuss your favourite film.
 
Комплекс упражнений 7
2 курс. Раздел 2 «Что помогает нам наслаждаться жизнью». Тема «Мир кино».
 
MUSICALS
1.  Have you ever seen any of the musicals?
These musicals are very popular in many countries.                                                                                                       Can you match the musicals with these summaries?

 
1 The Phantom of the Opera
2 Sunset Boulevard
3 Miss Saigon
A  It’s a love story about a Vietnamese woman and an American soldier.
B  It’s about an old Hollywood film actress.
C  It’s about a man who pretended to be a ghost.  
 
2.  This is a story of  The Phantom of the Opera.

 
  1. Read the story. Is it happy or sad?
  2.  
In 1880 the Paris Opera House was the home of a ‘phantom’, who wore black clothes and a mask to hide his face. He lived under the theatre. The directors of the Opera House wanted the phantom as a friend, not an enemy. They left money for him every month and they let him watch the opera from Box Number 5. No one else could use that box.
 
One day Carlotta, the star of the Opera House, was ill and couldn’t sing. A young singer called Christine sang instead. The phantom fell in love with her and became her music teacher. Christine never saw her teacher – only heard his voice – but she liked him very much. She had a beautiful voice but she was very young so the directors did not want to give her important parts in the operas.
 
New directors came to the Opera House. They didn’t believe there was a phantom so they stopped paying him money and they let other people use Box Number 5. The phantom, angry with the new directors, started to make ‘accidents’ happen. An enormous chandelier, which fell from the ceiling in the theatre, killed many people. Then Carlotta, the star, began to sign like a frog so Christine had to sing instead. She sang like an angel and became very popular.
 
One day when Christine met the phantom, he took off his mask. She saw his yellow face, which had no nose and black holes for eyes. He asked her to marry him. However, Christine was in love with Raoul, a handsome young man who was very rich. When she told the phantom about Raoul, he was very angry and took Christine to his home under the theatre. Raoul followed them and the phantom tried to kill him.
 
Christine promised to marry the phantom to save Raoul’s life. But when she kissed the phantom, he let her go free because he loved her so much. A few weeks later he died of a broken heart.  Christine and Raoul left the theatre and no one ever saw them again.

 
  1. Read the story again. Which is the correct answer – a) or b)?
 
1 The old directors                                                                                                                                                         a) knew about the phantom. b) did not believe in phantoms.
2 The new directors
a) asked the phantom to pay for his box. b) stopped paying the phantom money.
3 The phantom
a) was angry so there were a lot of accidents. b) had accidents.
4 Christine
a) was famous at the beginning of the story. b) became famous after she met the phantom
5 Christine
a) fell in love with the phantom. b) said she would marry the phantom.

 
  1. What do you think?
1 Who was the phantom? Why was he there?
2 Do you feel sorry for the phantom?
3 What do you think happened to Christine and Raoul?
&nb

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